M’Gonigle, L. K., N. M. Williams, E. Lonsdorf, and C. Kremen. 2016. A Tool for Selecting Plants When Restoring Habitat for Pollinators. Conservation Letters. Early-View PDF

Parker, A. J., N. M. Williams, and J. D. Thomson. 2016. Specialist pollinators deplete pollen in the spring ephemeral wildflower Claytonia virginica. Ecology and Evolution. Early-View PDF

Crone, E. E., and N. M. Williams. 2016. Bumble bee colony dynamics: quantifying the importance of land use and floral resources for colony growth and queen production. Ecology Letters. Early-View PDF

Rosenheim, J. A., S. J. Schreiber, and N. M. Williams. 2016. Does an “oversupply” of ovules cause pollen limitation? New Phytologist 210:324–332.

Koh, I., E. V. Lonsdorf, N. M. Williams, C. Brittain, R. Isaacs, J. Gibbs, and T. H. Ricketts. 2016. Modeling the status, trends, and impacts of wild bee abundance in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113:140–145. PDF

Rosenheim, J. A., N. M. Williams, S. J. Schreiber, and J. M. Rapp. 2016. Modest pollen limitation of lifetime seed production is in good agreement with modest uncertainty in whole-plant pollen receipt. American Naturalist. 187:397–404.  PDF


Koh, I., Lonsdorf, E.V., Williams, N. M., Brittain, C., Isaacs, R., Gibbs, J., and Ricketts, T.H. 2015. Modeling the status, trends, and impacts of wild bee abundance in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Early-View PDF

Recent news on this article:
LA Times Wild bees are least abundant where they’re most needed
NPR’s Here and Now

Gillespie, S., R. Long, and N. M. Williams. 2015. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.  J Economic Entomology 108 (6): 2511-2517  PDF

Rosenheim, J. A., S. J. Schreiber, and N. M. Williams. 2015. Does an “oversupply” of ovules cause pollen limitation? New Phytologist. PDF

Williams, N. M., Ward, K. L., Pope, N., Isaacs, R. Wilson, J., May, E. A., Ellis, J., Daniels, J., Pence, A., Ullmann, and K. Peters, J. 2015. Native wildflower plantings support wild bee abundance and diversity in agricultural landscapes across the United States. Ecological Applications. PDF

Fründ, J., K. S. McCann, and N. M. Williams. 2015. Sampling bias is a challenge for quantifying specialization and network structure: lessons from a quantitative niche model. Oikos. Early-view PDF

Kleijn, D., Winfree, R., Bartomeus, I., Carvalheiro, L. G., Henry, M., Isaacs, R., Klein, A.M., Kremen, C., M’Gonigle, L. K., Rader, R., Ricketts, T. H., Williams, N.M., et al. (including K. L. Ward) 2015. Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation. Nature Communications 6:7414 PDF featured in The Washington Post, The Guardian, LA Times, The Independent, Wired, Quartz, Conservation Magazine and Science Daily

Forrest, J. R. K., R. W. Thorp, C. Kremen, and N. M. Williams. 2015. Contrasting patterns in species and functional-trait diversity of bees in an agricultural landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:706–715. PDF

Winfree, R., J. W. Fox, N. M. Williams, J. R. Reilly, and D. P. Cariveau. 2015. Abundance of common species, not species richness, drives delivery of a real-world ecosystem service. Ecology Letters. PDF

Schreiber, S. J., J. A. Rosenheim, N. M. Williams, and L. D. Harder. 2015. Evolutionary and Ecological Consequences of Multiscale Variation in Pollen Receipt for Seed Production. The American Naturalist 185:E14–E29. PDF


Gillespie, S., R. Long, N. Seitz, and N. M. Williams. 2014. Insecticide Use in Hybrid Onion Seed Production Affects Pre- and Postpollination Processes. Journal of Economic Entomology 107:29–37.

Rosenheim, J. A., Neal M. Williams, and S. J. Schreiber. 2014. Parental Optimism versus Parental Pessimism in Plants: How Common Should We Expect Pollen Limitation to Be? The American Naturalist 184:75–90. PDF

Wilkerson, M. L., K. L. Ward, N. M. Williams, K. S. Ullmann, and T. P. Young. 2014. Diminishing Returns from Higher Density Restoration Seedings Suggest Trade-offs in Pollinator Seed Mixes. Restoration Ecology 22:782–789. PDF

Winfree, R., N. M. Williams, J. Dushoff, and C. Kremen. 2014. Species Abundance, Not Diet Breadth, Drives the Persistence of the Most Linked Pollinators as Plant-Pollinator Networks Disassemble. The American Naturalist 183:600–611. PDF


Brittain, C., N. Williams, C. Kremen, and A.-M. Klein. 2013. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280:20122767–20122767. PDF

Cariveau, D. P., N. M. Williams, F. E. Benjamin, and R. Winfree. 2013. Response diversity to land use occurs but does not consistently stabilise ecosystem services provided by native pollinators. Ecology Letters 16:903–911. PDF

Garibaldi, L. A., et al. 2013. Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance. Science 339:1608–1611. PDF

Kennedy, C. M., et al. 2013. A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecology Letters 16:584–599. PDF

Minckley, R. L., T. H. Roulston, and N. M. Williams. 2013. Resource assurance predicts specialist and generalist bee activity in drought. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 280:20122703.

Williams, N. M., and R. Winfree. 2013. Local habitat characteristics but not landscape urbanization drive pollinator visitation and native plant pollination in forest remnants. Biological Conservation 160:10–18. PDF


Klein, A.-M., C. Brittain, S. D. Hendrix, R. Thorp, N. Williams, and C. Kremen. 2012. Wild pollination services to California almond rely on semi-natural habitat: Wild pollination services to California almond. Journal of Applied Ecology. PDF

Schleuning, M., et al. 2012. Specialization of Mutualistic Interaction Networks Decreases toward Tropical Latitudes. Current Biology 22:1925–1931. PDF

Williams, N. M., J. Regetz, and C. Kremen. 2012. Landscape-scale resources promote colony growth but not reproductive performance of bumble bees. Ecology 93:1049–1058. PDF


Tomich, T. P., S. Brodt, H. Ferris, R. Galt, W. R. Horwath, E. Kebreab, J. H. J. Leveau, D. Liptzin, M. Lubell, P. Merel, R. Michelmore, T. Rosenstock, K. Scow, J. Six, N. Williams, and L. Yang. 2011. Agroecology: A Review from a Global-Change Perspective. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 36:193–222. PDF

Golet, G. H., T. Gardali, J. W. Hunt, D. A. Koenig, and N. M. Williams. 2011. Temporal and Taxonomic Variability in Response of Fauna to Riparian Restoration. Restoration Ecology 19:126–135. PDF

Williams, N. M. 2011. Restoration of Nontarget Species: Bee Communities and Pollination Function in Riparian Forests. Restoration Ecology 19:450–459. PDF

Williams, N. M., D. Cariveau, R. Winfree, and C. Kremen. 2011. Bees in disturbed habitats use, but do not prefer, alien plants. Basic and Applied Ecology 12:332–341. PDF


Williams, N. M., E. E. Crone, T. H. Roulston, R. L. Minckley, L. Packer, and S. G. Potts. 2010. Ecological and life-history traits predict bee species responses to environmental disturbances. Biological Conservation 143:2280–2291. PDF


Lonsdorf, E., C. Kremen, T. Ricketts, R. Winfree, N. Williams, and S. Greenleaf. 2009. Modelling pollination services across agricultural landscapes. Annals of Botany 103:1589–1600. PDF

Richards, S. A., N. M. Williams, and L. D. Harder. 2009. Variation in Pollination: Causes and Consequences for Plant Reproduction. The American Naturalist 174:382–398. PDF


Elliott, S. E., R. E. Irwin, L. S. Adler, and N. M. Williams. 2008. The nectar alkaloid, gelsemine, does not affect offspring performance of a native solitary bee, Osmia lignaria (Megachilidae). Ecological Entomology 33:298–304. PDF


Greenleaf, S. S., N. M. Williams, R. Winfree, and C. Kremen. 2007. Bee foraging ranges and their relationship to body size. Oecologia 153:589–596. PDF

Kremen, C., N. M. Williams, M. A. Aizen, B. Gemmill-Herren, G. LeBuhn, R. Minckley, L. Packer, S. G. Potts, T. Roulston, I. Steffan-Dewenter, D. P. Vázquez, R. Winfree, L. Adams, E. E. Crone, S. S. Greenleaf, T. H. Keitt, A.-M. Klein, J. Regetz, and T. H. Ricketts. 2007. Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change. Ecology Letters 10:299–314. PDF

Vázquez, D. P., C. J. Melián, N. M. Williams, N. Blüthgen, B. R. Krasnov, and R. Poulin. 2007. Species abundance and asymmetric interaction strength in ecological networks. Oikos 116:1120–1127. PDF

Williams, N. M., and C. Kremen. 2007. Resource distributions among habitats determine solitary bee offspring production in a mosaic landscape. Ecological Applications 17:910–921. PDF

Winfree, R., N. M. Williams, J. Dushoff, and C. Kremen. 2007. Native bees provide insurance against ongoing honey bee losses. Ecology Letters 10:1105–1113. PDF

Winfree, R., N. M. Williams, H. Gaines, J. S. Ascher, and C. Kremen. 2007. Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of crop visitation across land-use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA: Crop Visitation By Wild Pollinators. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:793–802. PDF


Cane, J. H., R. L. Minckley, L. J. Kervin, T. H. Roulston, and N. M. Williams. 2006. Complex Responses Within A Desert Bee Guild (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) To Urban Habitat Fragmentation. Ecological Applications 16:632–644. PDF

Kim, J., N. Williams, and C. Kremen. 2006. Effects of Cultivation and Proximity to Natural Habitat on Ground-nesting Native Bees in California Sunflower Fields. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 79:309–320.


Larsen, T. H., N. M. Williams, and C. Kremen. 2005. Extinction order and altered community structure rapidly disrupt ecosystem functioning. Ecology Letters 8:538–547. PDF

Winfree, R., J. Dushoff, E. E. Crone, C. B. Schultz, R. V. Budny, N. M. Williams, and C. Kremen. 2005. Testing Simple Indices of Habitat Proximity. The American Naturalist 165:707–717. PDF


Kremen, C., N. M. Williams, R. L. Bugg, J. P. Fay, and R. W. Thorp. 2004. The area requirements of an ecosystem service: crop pollination by native bee communities in California. Ecology Letters 7:1109–1119. PDF


Williams, N. M. 2003. Use of novel pollen species by specialist and generalist solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Oecologia 134:228–237. PDF

Williams, N. M., and V. J. Tepedino. 2003. Consistent mixing of near and distant resources in foraging bouts by the solitary mason bee Osmia lignaria. Behavioral Ecology 14:141–149. PDF


Kremen, C., N. M. Williams, and R. W. Thorp. 2002. Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:16812–16816. PDF

2001 & Earlier

Williams, N. M., and K. Goodell. 2000. Association of Mandible Shape and Nesting Material in Osmia Panzer (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): a Morphometric Analysis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93:318–325.

Williams, N. M., and J. D. Thomson. 1998. Trapline foraging by bumble bees: III. Temporal patterns of visitation and foraging success at single plants. Behavioral Ecology 9:612–621. PDF

Waser, N. M., L. Chittka, M. V. Price, N. M. Williams, and J. Ollerton. 1996. Generalization in Pollination Systems, and Why it Matters. Ecology 77:1043–1060. PDF

Jeanne, R. L., N. M. Williams, and B. S. Yandell. 1992. Age polyethism and defense in a tropical social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 5:211–227. PDF